The “Invasion” of Nitrile Gloves over Natural Rubber Gloves
In recent years, the allergies of some individuals to the latex proteins in natural rubber gloves have caused concern to the medical professions and there is a shift in preference to more expensive powder-free latex gloves and gloves with low protein levels and also to synthetic gloves. Regulatory Bodies are also imposing limits to the level of protein and powder in the gloves.
Some of the advances made by the nitrile glove manufacturer on producing quality gloves that meet the requirements of the consumers, includes the use of specially enzymatic treated natural rubber latex as starting material, adopting newer processing technologies with effective рre- and рoѕt-сuring leaching, the control of acidity in leaching water and the use of ultrasonic device in leaching to manufacture gloves with minimal protein content. Exploratory studies of using treated сorn-ѕtarсh to reduce the absorbent properties of powder in powdered natural rubber gloves also produced encouraging result. Improved processing technologies of on-line chlorination and from ѕingle-ѕurfaсe to both side polymer coating of gloves have enabled more efficient production of powder-free gloves. To meet the need of users who are already sensitized to protein and have been advised to avoid natural rubber latex gloves, some of the manufacturers have commenced producing and exporting quality nitrile and polyurethane gloves.
The demand and consumption of natural rubber latex material will continue to decline across the entire rubber industry. This is because synthetic latex will be replacing natural rubber latex at a fast rate. The technology of processing synthetic latex has become highly advanced and the price of synthetic latex has been far more stable. The seat glove manufacturers enjoy in the world stage cannot be underestimated – they supply 40% of synthetic rubber gloves respectively of the world needs.
Much of the appeal, which has led to the growing demand for nitrile gloves in the United States and Europe, stems from concerns of protein allergy from natural rubber. With better research and development, manufacturers are able to produce powder-free synthetic rubber gloves which have cut down the issues of protein allergy tremendously. As such, the users’ scope has widened in both developed and potential markets and there’s likelihood of nitrile replacing natural rubber gloves.
Nitrile gloves are more comfortable as the fitting reduce fatigue, especially surgical gloves. This is important as the user needs a good fit and a protective layer and not something that causes fatigue when performing surgery and other medical procedures. Another plus point is that nitrile gloves have elastic properties that self-seal if there is a pin hole. On the other hand, for natural latex gloves, the pin holes become bigger with movement.
The surgical glove market has been invaded by a variety of synthetic gloves. The prices of all types of gloves rose over recent years as raw material prices and fuel prices skyrocketed. Despite the economic slowdown in many countries, increasing demand has been driving this industry. High demand helped offset price increases due to production costs, with the most significant change happening in the nitrile glove segment. Users started buying nitrile when production shortage plagued the two popular materials, latex and vinyl. As sales of nitrile started to climb, end-users began to notice that vinyl offered poor barrier protection, and the best hypoallergenic, affordable alternative to latex was nitrile. Nitrile also offers better barrier protection against both chemicals and microbes. Nitrile is now the preferred material in many medical settings.
Rubber Products Classification
Made of rubber tree latex is collected, isoprene polymer. With wear resistance, high elasticity, tensile strength and elongation as well. Aging in air, the heat variable viscosity, easy expansion in mineral oil or gasoline and dissolved, but not resistant to strong acid and alkali. Advantages: good elasticity, acid and alkali resistance. Disadvantages: not weather, not oil resistant (resistant to vegetable oil) is the production of adhesive tape, rubber hose, rubber overshoes of raw materials, and is suitable for the production of shock absorber parts, brake products using oil, ethanol with hydroxide liquid in the automobile.
Styrene Butadiene Copolymer
Ding two cyclohexene and styrene copolymer, comparison, and natural rubber of uniform quality, foreign matter less, has better wear resistance and aging resistance, but the mechanical strength is weak, can use synthetic and natural rubber mixing. Advantages: low cost non oil resistant material, good water resistance, hardness below 70 with good elasticity, high hardness with poor compressibility,: do not recommend the use of strong acid, ozone, oil, oil esters and fatty and most of the hydrocarbon compounds. Widely used in the tire industry, shoes, cloth and conveyor belt industry etc
Isobutylene isoprene is polymerized with a small amount, due to steric hindrance of molecular motion of the polymer methyl than other less, so the gas permeability is less, resistance to heat, sunlight, ozone, electrical insulation good; for polar fluxing agent resistance, generally the use temperature range of -54-110 DEG C advantages: most of the general. Gas with impermeability, resistance to sunlight and smell good to be exposed to animal or vegetable oil or chemical gasifiable materials. Disadvantages: not recommended and oil soluble agent, adhesive of kerosene and aromatic hydrogen also used for automobile tire inner tubes, leather, rubber paste paper, window frame, steam hose, rubber heat resistant conveyor belt etc.
Hydrogenated nitrile rubber as part of double chain removal via the hydrogenated NBR rubber, the hydrogenated and its temperature resistance, weather ability than general NBR improved a lot, oil resistance and similar general NBR rubber. The general use of the temperature range of -25~150 DEG C. Advantages: abrasion resistance better than NBR rubber has excellent corrosion resistance, and tensile, anti tear and compression properties.
Good resistance to ozone and other atmospheric conditions, cleaning agent is generally applicable to washing or washing dishes. Disadvantages: not recommended for use in alcohols, esters or solution aromatic in refrigeration and air conditioning industry, widely used for the seal of refrigerant R134a in the system. The car engine system seals.
Ethylene propylene Rubber
From ethylene and propylene is polymerized, therefore the heat resistance, aging resistance, ozone resistance, and stability are very good, but not sulfur and sulfur. In order to solve this problem, in the main chain of EP into a small amount of third components of double chain and can add sulfur namely into EPDM, the general use of temperature for -50~ 150 C in a polar solvent such as alcohol and ketone resistance excellent advantages: good resistance and ozone resistance, water resistance and anti-chemical material with excellent, can use the alcohols and ketones, high-temperature steam, impermeability to gases with good. Disadvantages: not recommended for food use or be exposed to aromatic hydrogen. High temperature water vapor environment seal seal or parts of bathroom. Brake (brake) system of rubber parts. Radiator (automobile water tank) in the seal.
By acrylonitrile and butadiene copolymerization, acrylonitrile content by 18%~50%, acrylonitrile content higher, better resistance to petrochemical oil hydrocarbon fuel oil, but the low temperature performance variation, generally the use temperature range of -25~100 DEG C. Ding Qingjiao is currently the rubber O - ring seal and the most commonly used one of the advantages of: oil resistant, good resistance to water, characteristics of anti solvent and anti high pressure oil. With good compression, abrasion resistance and elongation stress.
Disadvantages: not suitable for polar solvents, such as ketones, nitro hydrocarbons, ozone, MEK and chloroform for the production of the fuel tank, lubricating oil tank and oil system used in the hydraulic oil, gasoline, water, silicon oil, two ester lubricants and other fluid medium rubber parts, especially the parts can be said to be sealed. At present, the most widely uses, the lowest cost of rubber seals
Neoprene /Poly chloroprene
By chlorine butane monomer polymerized rubber elasticity after curing. The wear resistance of the good, not afraid of sunlight directly irradiating, weather particularly good performance, not afraid of intense distortion, not afraid of refrigerant, resistance, resistance to dilute acid, silicon ester lubricants, but not resistant to phosphoric acid ester type hydraulic oil. Yi Jiejing, at low temperature hardening, poor storage stability in low aniline point of mineral oil in large expansion quantity. The general use of the temperature range of -50~150 DEG C. Advantages: good elasticity and good compression deformation formula not containing sulphur is therefore very easy to make. The properties of anti animal and vegetable oil, not because the neutral compound, fat and oil and oil, solvent and the impact of property, anti combustion properties.
Disadvantages： Does not recommend the use of strong acid, chemical nitro hydrocarbons, esters, and ketones compounds in chloroform and R12 the seal resistance to refrigerant, appliances or seal on the rubber parts. Suitable for making various kinds of direct contact with the atmosphere, sunlight, ozone parts. Applicable to all kinds of fire resistance, chemical corrosion resistant rubber products.
Method for Producing Color Rubber Products
Coloring method of rubber products are mainly surface coloring and mixing coloring two. Surface on the table is a colorant is sprayed to surface of rubber products, rubber products, make coloring. This method has some effect on the dynamic static products, products, colorant, easy stripping, easy to fade. Mixing coloration is at present the main method of rubber coloring, solution method and mixing method two. The mixing method and several methods of dry coloring, paste coloring, coloring and granular master batch coloring.
The method is to use the excellent solvent rubber solution to a certain concentration, and then removal of sulfur colorant and outer rubber compounding agent was added into the solution evenly mixed at a certain temperature drying to remove the solvent, finally in the rubber mixing machine add sulfur. The method of coloring the complex operation, colorants and coordinating agent, dispersing unevenly, color, solvent, pollute the environment, has been less used.
This method is most often the rubber coloring, is a colorant is added directly or first mixed with the carrier is added to the rubber compound, by mixing machine mixing, so that the rubber coloring. Specific methods are as follows.
This method of dry coloring is directly to the powder colorant along with small material added in rubber, mixing in the mixing machine. The advantages of this method are simple operation, low cost, but the mixing of dust, pollution of the environment, and is not easy to disperse uniformly, color, if the particle is excellent too thick, can also cause quality problems of color, stripe or chromatography mutual pollution, has been less used. For ease of use, the powder colorant and stearic acid, sulfuric acid and salt together into pre dispersion of colorant, market for sales.
Introduction of Medical Glove
Medical gloves are disposable gloves used during medical examinations and procedures that help prevent contamination between caregivers and patients. Medical gloves are made of different polymers including latex, nitrile rubber, vinyl and neoprene; they come unpowered or powdered with cornstarch to lubricate the gloves, making them easier to put on the hands. Cornstarch replaced tissue-irritating Lycopodium powder and talc, but since even cornstarch can impede healing if it gets into tissues (as during surgery), unpowered gloves are being used more often during surgery and other sensitive procedures. Special manufacturing processes are used to compensate for the lack of powder. There are two main types of gloves: exam and surgical. Surgical gloves have more precise sizing with a better precision and sensitivity and are made to a higher standard. Exam gloves are available as either sterile or non-sterile, while surgical gloves are generally sterile
History of Medical Glove
In 1890 William Stewart Halsted was the first to use sterilized medical gloves when he was at Johns Hopkins University. With the publication of germ theory Halsted was using carbolic acid, introduced by Joseph Lister, to sterilize his hands and his nurse's hands. She was sensitive to the chemical, and it was damaging the skin on her hands; so he asked the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company if they could make a glove of rubber that could be dipped in carbolic acid.
The first disposable latex medical gloves were manufactured in 1964 by Ansell. They based the production on the technique for making condoms. These gloves have a range of clinical uses ranging from dealing with human excrement to dental applications.
Criminals have also been known to wear these gloves during the commission of their crimes. These gloves are often chosen because their thinness and tight fit allow for dexterity. However because of the thinness of these gloves, fingerprints may actually pass through the material as glove prints, thus transferring the wearer's prints onto whatever surface is touched or handled.
The participants of the Watergate burglaries infamously did so wearing rubber surgical gloves in an effort to hide their fingerprints.
How to use medical gloves
It is very important to use medical gloves safely. Before wearing medical gloves, wash and dry hands well, wear gloves whenever contact is possible with blood, body fluids and substances. While removing always keep in mind that does not touch outsides of the gloves. Grab the top of your right glove with left hand. Pull toward your fingertips throw the glove in waste container.
Alternatives to latex
Due to the increasing rate of latex allergy among health professionals, and in the general population, gloves made of non-latex materials such as vinyl, nitrile rubber, or neoprene have become widely used. Chemical processes may be employed to reduce the amount of antigenic protein in Have latex, resulting in alternative natural-rubber-based materials such Vytex Natural Rubber Latex. However, non-latex gloves have not yet replaced latex gloves in surgical procedures, as gloves made of alternative materials generally do not fully match the fine control or greater sensitivity to touch available with latex surgical gloves. (High-grade isoprene gloves are the only exception to this rule, as they have the same chemical structure as natural latex rubber. However, fully artificial polyisoprene—rather than "hypoallergenic" cleaned natural latex rubber—is also the most expensive natural latex substitute available. Other high-grade non-latex gloves, such as nitrile gloves, can cost over twice the price of their latex counterparts, a fact that has often prevented switching to these alternative materials in cost-sensitive environments, such as many hospitals.
Powder-free medical gloves are used in medical cleanroom environments, where the need for cleanliness is often similar to that in a sensitive medical environment.
Choose the Right Exam Gloves
Latex, nitrile and vinyl are the three primary types of materials used to manufacture disposable gloves. Historically, latex has been the primary material used due to its popularity among users; however recent concern about latex allergies has lead to an increase in demand for vinyl and nitrile options.
The latex material is harvested from rubber tree farms mostly found in Thailand. Until recently, latex had been the most widely used form of disposable hand protection due to its high flexibility and durable characteristics. Additionally, many users feel that latex provides an unsurpassed level of comfort when compared to other disposable glove materials.
Nitrile gloves provide the best form of barrier protection among the three common disposable glove materials. The nitrile material is preferable in high-stress environments where the end user may encounter harsh chemicals. Modern manufacturing processes allow for nitrile gloves to be produced with a softer fit and feel.
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) is used to produce vinyl gloves. This material offers an economical solution to those in search of a latex-free alternative for their hand protection needs. Vinyl gloves provide standard protection in most environments. When choosing your disposable glove, you should consider the application in which you require will hand protection. Typically the job function being performed is the deciding factor when choosing which type of glove to use.
Introduction of Malaysia
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia. It consists of thirteen states and three federal territories and has a total landmass of 329,847 square kilometers (127,350 sq mi) separated by the South China Sea into two similarly sized regions, Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo. Land borders are shared with Thailand, Indonesia, and Brunei, and maritime borders exist with Singapore, Vietnam, and the Philippines. The capital city is Kuala Lumpur, while Putrajaya is the seat of the federal government. In 2010 the population exceeded 27.5 million, with over 20 million living on the Peninsula.
Malaysia has its origins in the Malay Kingdoms present in the area which, from the 18th century, became subject to the British Empire. The first British territories were known as the Straits Settlements, whose establishment was followed by the Malay kingdoms becoming British protectorates. The territories on Peninsular Malaysia were first unified as the Malayan Union in 1946. Malaya was restructured as the Federation of Malaya in 1948, and achieved independence on 31 August 1957. Malaya united with Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore on 16 September 1963, with Singapore being added to give the new country the name Malaysia. However, less than two years later in 1965, Singapore was expelled from the federation. Since independence, Malaysia has had one of the best economic records in Asia, with GDP growing an average 6.5% for almost 50 years. The economy has traditionally been fuelled by its natural resources, but is expanding in the sectors of science, tourism, commerce and medical tourism.
The country is multi-ethnic and multi-cultural, which plays a large role in politics. The government system is closely modeled on the Westminster parliamentary system and the legal system is based on English Common Law. The constitution declares Islam the state religion while protecting freedom of religion. The head of state is the King, known as the Yang Di-Pertuan Agong. He is an elected monarch chosen from the hereditary rulers of the nine Malay states every five years. The head of government is the Prime Minister.
Typically, Malaysia is responsible for one third of the world's rubber export. Malaysia is also an exporter of palm oil, timber, pepper, and tobacco.
Agriculture remains an important sector of Malaysia's economy, contributing 12 percent to the national GDP and providing employment for 16 percent of the population. The British established large-scale plantations and introduced new commercial crops (rubber in 1876, palm oil in 1917, and cocoa in the 1950s). The 3 main crops—rubber, palm oil, and cocoa—have dominated agricultural exports ever since, although the Malaysian share of the world's production of these crops declined steadily during the last 2 decades. Logging in the tropical rainforest is an important export revenue earner in Malaysia and in the northern states of Peninsular Malaysia. Malaysia is one of the world's leading suppliers of rubber, producing 767,000 metric tons of rubber in 1999.
Since 2001, Malaysia's rubber production has been increasing. In 2004, production value reached eight billion dollars, in 2007 it topped ten billion dollars, and in 2008, production value is sitting at 11.24 billion dollars. In 2009 however, production plummeted by nearly six percent. Malaysia has earned a good reputation around the world for its high quality and well priced rubber products. Rubber manufacturers in Malaysia supply several different rubber products such as medical gloves, components for automobiles, belts, and hoses to several different countries such as USA, Japan, and many countries in Europe.
The climatic conditions for optimum growth of rubber trees consist of:
Rainfall of around 250 cm evenly distributed without any marked dry season and with at least 100 rainy days per year.
• Temperature range of about 20°C to 34°C with a monthly mean of 25°C to 28°C.
• High atmospheric humidity of around 80%.
• Bright sunshine amounting to about 2000 hours per year at the rate of 6 hours per day throughout the year.
• Absence of strong winds.
• Many high-yielding clones have been developed for commercial planting. These clones yield more than 2,000 kilograms of dry rubber per hectare per year, when grown under ideal conditions and ideal field.